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PARAPSYCHOLOGY IN THE USSR.
I. Reports of studies of psi in the USSR go back to the mid
19th
century. According to MARTIN EBON, in his book, “PSI IN THE
USSR,
RELIGION WITHOUT A CROSS” (see Appendix 1, Reference
Literature),
Russian scientists and laity have been researching various
parapsychological phenomena for decades before the 1917
October
Revolution.
– From 1857 to 1867, the newspaper “WESTNIK EUROPY® in
Petersburg
appeared, which dealt with mediums and other openly
unexplainable
phenomena.
– The medium phenomenon was re-examined for its veracity
around 1860 by
a special committee of the Physical Society of the
University of
Petersburg, which was founded just for this purpose, and a
dispute
developed between Mendeleev and the then-prominent
spiritualist
A.N. Askov over the presumptions and methodologies of the
study.
Mendeleev had openly exposed fraudulent mediums.
– The oldest known report of telepathy experiments in Russia
describes, as does EBON in his book, telepathy experiments
in
Tashkent through Alexander Wilkins around 1870, and was
published in
Paris in the “Annals of Physical Science”.
– The Russian Society for Experimental Psychology was
founded in 1891.
t was interested in clairvoyance, psychometry and
poltergeist
phenomena. Materialism led to a search for new, new, no
longer
religious truths. Hypnosis, seances, with their connections
to
ghosts, and a string of unexplainable, supernatural
phenomena such
as thought transference and other related areas were
popular.
– So, research in parapsychology in the USSR was about the
same as in
the USA and other European countries up until the time of
the
industrial revolution.
II. EBON lists other scientists and works in parapsychology
which
occurred between the 1917 October revolution and the mid
’50s:
– VLADIMIR M. BECHTEREV (Leningrad): mental communication
between dogs
and humans.
– P,P. LAZAREV (1922): published “Psycho-chemical
Principles of the
Higher Nerve Energies”, in which the possibility of
telepathic
communication due to neurological functions was studied.
– B.B. KASCHINSKI: conducted other pertinent studies of
mental
telepathy with dogs, and published a book on thought
transference in
Moscow in 1923.
~ LEONID L. VASILIEV (died in 1966). A student of BECHTEREV,
joined
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the Institute for Brain Research in Leningrad in 1921, and
became a
member of the committee to study mental suggestion (the
expression
for telepathy at that time).
– 1924: The 2nd All-Russia Congress for Psych neurology
recommended a
Joint-work of the Russian scientists and the International
Committee
for Parapsychological Studies.
– About 1925: The selected Committee for the Study of Mental
Suggestion came about through the Society for Neurology,
Reflexology, Hypnosis and Biophysics was ended.
– 1928: The Institute of Brain Research in Leningrad began a
study of
the possible practical factors of telepathic phenomena from
person
to person, resulting in the conclusion that the phenomena of
thought
transference do not rest on “electromagnetism”.
~ 1959: Soviet parapsychology received strong impetus
through the
French publication of supposed American ship-to-shore
telepathy
attempts with the atomic submarine Nautilus, These attempts
were
officially denied by the Americans.
– In April, 1960 LL, VASILIEV, according to Sheila Ostrander
and Lynn
Schroeder in their book “PSI” (see Appendix 1,
Reference
Literature), reprimanded soviet scientists, referring to
these
Nautilus reports, for their considerable number of ESP and
telepathy
studies which were carried out under Stalin’s regime, but
were as
yet unpublished, He stressed the need to shake of f the
prejudices
against parapsychology. He is convinced that the discovery
of ESP
energy will be of the same significance as atomic energy.
~ 1961: L.L. Vasilyeva received the leadership of the first
ESP
laboratories sponsored by the soviet administration; the
Special
Laboratory for Parapsychology at the University of
Leningrad.
– After Vasilyeva’s death in 1966, the centre of soviet
parapsychological research partially shifted from Leningrad
to
Moscow, where IPPOLIT KOGAN, Director of the Section for
Bioinformation on the totally soviet scientific and
technical A.S.
Popov Institute for Radiotechnology and Electrical
Communication was
located.
– EDUARD K. NAUMOV and KARL NIKOLAEV were known at this time
through
telepathy experiments which were conducted over the distance
of
Moscow to Leningrad,
– In the summer of 1968 a conference in Moscow on
“Technical
Parapsychology” took place.
– NINA KULAGINA and WOLF MESSING are the two most famous
soviet
“tears” of this time with supposedly especially great
parapsychological talent. N. KULAGINA fascinated onlookers
with
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psychokinetic abilities, in which she made compass needles
and other
articles move with an energy which seemed to radiate from
her hands.
W. MESSING held large crowds of spectators with his
telepathic
exhibitions in Bann.
– In July, 1970, the Russian newspaper “Radio-Technika”
published
research results of the above mentioned professor KOGAN in
Moscow,
which had supposedly convincingly proven the existence of
telepathic
possibilities through statistical methods.
~ 8S. OSTRANDER and L. SCHROEDER in their book “PSI*
maintained that
while, by 1970 there were already more than 30 centres in
the USSR
for the study of paranormal phenomena, and that by 1967
there were
already yearly budgets of at least 13 million rubbles had
been put at
their disposal for these studies, and parapsychology in the
USSR
enjoyed official sanction, VLADIMIR LVOV’s article in the
newspaper
LE MONDE (4 AUG 76) denied it (official) recognition in the
USSR.
He logically pointed out in his article that it is a mistake
to
accept that parapsychology enjoyed official recognition in
the USSR.
Moreover, the truth was simply that, parapsychology in the
Soviet
Union was not recognized as an official branch of science.
No
institute and no research centre in the Soviet Union devoted
itself
to telepathy or psychokinesis, etc., but there were simply a
group
of amateurs who associated themselves with the paranormal.
According to EBON, this opposing opinion makes clear the
unpleasant situation in which parapsychology found itself in
Russia
at this time. It held no official status, but individuals
and
private groups could carry on such studies without special
official
intervention,
Further examples of the historical development of soviet
parapsychology are found listed in Appendix 1, Reference
literature of
western authors. The book “PSI” by S. OSTRANDER
and L. SCHROEDER
contains an extensive source of proof.
It. A literature search on the theme, made in open-source
databanks
in December, 1990, for the time around 1968, turned up 27
institutes
and/or centres in which researchers were occupied with
paranormal
phenomena, in the widest sense of the term (see List of
Institutes,
Appendix 2).
Here were explored practically all aspects of
parapsychology, such
as the general concept “ESP” line German, ASW),
and the subject reports
of telepathy, telepathic hypnosis, clairvoyance, as well as
the concept
of “psychokinesis” (the physical influence of man over
matter), which
encompasses the study of the human biofield, the application
of the
KIRLIAN effect, and healing through laying on of hands.
There appear to be the reports of telepathy and telepathic
hypnosis,
like hypnosis per se, which the most basic research and the
widest
development of reports of soviet parapsychology.
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SG1E
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In 1962 L.L. VASILIEV, in his book on experimental studies
of
“mental suggestion”, showed the advanced position of
(such) pertinent
research in the USSR. Efforts toward the aimed telepathic
manipulation
of human consciousness seem to have played a large role in
telepathic
hypnosis. Research and application of hypnosis is wide
spread in the
USSR. It is used in medicine, psychotherapy, physiology,
psychology,
psychiatry, and in experimental education. Also the
possibility of the
development and application of drugs for the augmentation of
hypnosis
was researched.
soviet scientists such as L.L. VASILIEV, I.M. KOGAN, V.
MUTSCHALL,
V.F. BASSIN, M.V. AVAKUMOV, ID. DUBROVSKI, V.L. RAIKOV and
PA.
SLOBODYANIK, with their co-authors have made names for
themselves in
the above named reports for the timespan of 1968 on. The
exceptional
works published just in the 3 years 1969-1971 by S.A.
EGOROV, P.V.
ZAGRYADSKI, F.D. MORDVINOV and N.B. YAKOVETS and their
co-authors from
the Kirov Military-Medical Academy in Leningrad, fall
especially into
the area of psychophysiological research in connection with
ergonometric questions, and only peripherally have something
to do with
parapsychology (see also Appendix 3, Author list).
Isil. It was reported again and again in the rainbow press
that the
military and the secret police were behind the Russian
efforts to get a
scientific grip on parapsychology.
The contents of these statements could never be
substantiated and
the soviet open-source literature on parapsychology also
gives no
reliable evidence. Certain revelations in the past years in
the USSR
have made assumptions that research has been done here – but
these and
the research results were and will be held in secret.
Signs of the efforts of soviet parapsychologists to use
telepathy as
a world-wide telecommunications system for cosmonauts
between one
another and between earth and the cosmonauts in Space were
already
visible in the 50’s. In 1967, the Russian trade paper
“Marine Report”
wrote that cosmonauts in apace can “gat together (mentally)
with each
other easier than with people on earth. Psi-training wag
said to have
been taken up on the cosmonauts training program.
Supposedly,
phenomenal psi experiments between soviet cosmonauts and
scientists on
the earth were said to have been conducted. The dates and
results of
these experiments, however, were not published in
open-source
literature, so a firm evaluation of these efforts is not
possible.
In a purely news-report fashion, the subject-complexity of
parapsychology in the USSR and its application by the
military and the
KGB is contradictory, based on, in part, conflicting
rumours:
– In 1977 a specialist in Psychiatry from the Serb ski
Institute in
Moscow, with a good possibility of insight into the
situation
declared in an article named “CONTROLLED BY THE KGB”
which appeared in “Der SPIEGEL” (4 JUL 77), that Psi in the
USSR was
an unrealistic sensationalism of half-truths and the
fantasies of
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Journalist, Parapsychology was not a recognized science in
the
USSR. The arrest of the American Journalist TOTH at that
time
didn’t reveal that parapsychology in the USSR could have
been seen
as a state secret. It could have dealt with a completely
normal
paper of the KGB which a western journalist took from a
soviet
citizen,
SG1B
In the USSR, “Psi capabilities of biological systems”
is the
theme of exhaustive studies. The buzz-words for it are
“Bioenergy”
and “Hypersensitivity”. In the area of the so-called
EMV~/EMC
research a newly named scientific trend, under the buzz-word
“Psychotronic”, shall be researched (to see) if it is
actually a
latent human possibility to be able to activate one’s
bioelectric
Field to join with distant objects and subjects.
The principal of “Laying on of the hands” as a diagnostic
tool for
the sick will be conducted in the Poly-clinic of the State
Planning
Committee of the USSR in Moscow, which is situated directly
under
the Health Ministry.
To the list of institutes which are occupied with the
problem of
“the nature of the biological energy field” belong,
among others:
The Institute for Psychology, Moscow, 37a Vavilov St.
(Director,
B.F. Lomo), fields of study: research of the material basis
of the
Psyche; psychological problems in its relationship to the
driving of
modern technology: Psychophysiology of the brain. These take
place
in cooperation with work in “the laboratory for cell
physiology and
synaptic control” of the “Institute for Higher Nerve
Activity and
Neurophysiology”, Moscow, and with the “Department of Kinetics
Chemical and Biological Processes” of the Institute of
Chemical
Physics (N.N. Semenov)”, Moscow.
This project also addresses research into the
“KIRLIAN-effect”, the
physical proof of “finger radiation”, which, for
example, might
allow lay practitioners to make diagnoses, to achieve
healings with
this particular process, triggered on the skin of the human
body or
on the surface of various plants. Equipment necessary for
the proof
of the “KIRLIAN-effect” was developed and built in the
“Special
Construction Bureau” for the “biological apparatus
building” in
Podcatching. Connections with the application of
psychoparmacopia
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43 a simulation for the PSI ability should be undertaken at
the
Pacific Institute for Bioorganic Chemistry” in Vladivostok.
It is interesting that “materialistic science” (tries) first
of all
to prove that all events are physically explainable. On this
basis,
the proof of the appearance of “rays” which come from living
things
demands a great deal of dedicated research, By the same
token, it
is also interesting to find out the possibilities of
strengthening
and making this type of “rays” useful for various
applications.
The applications Span from medical fields, like diagnosis
and
healing in a relatively simple (and cheap) way by
influencing of the
“psychically sick” (as it is officially called), to the
communication between living beings over short or long
distances,
without tapping into or disturbing such a communications
system.
– In November 1986 a western scientist with the Opportunity
of good
insight into the research and application of medical
hypnosis in the
USSR transmitted the following details:
Medical hypnosis is used intensively in the RGW field in the
USSR.
The primary work “Chemical and Experimental Hypnosis”
by WILLIAM S,
KROGER serves as the groundwork for the basis of
corresponding
intended research. The basic research for the subject area
of
“medical hypnosis” is carried out in the USSR at the Pavlov
Institute and the Institute of Psychology in Moscow, as well
as in
“some branches” in Siberia. It deals with a known discipline
within
“psychosomatic medical word”, and this hypnosis will be
inserted
into several areas of Operative medicine, but algo therapy
for the
alleviation and elimination of pain, as it deals with
neurologically
conditioned pain. Beyond that, various groups have been
schooled in
the basis of the so-called “hypnotic Influence”, such as a
scientist
to whom important assignments have been given, or those
appointed to
special interest organizations in western countries, and
also
cosmonauts taking a 3-month hypnosis training course. That
means
that if the person tries to gain a “photographic
memory”, it enables
him to faithfully recapture visuals, audial, and even after
a
longer time, pictures and letters,
Insofar as the above contents of these “service reports”
which refer
to the tangle of military or KGB interests, are whole, but
also only
partly proven, they cannot be Judged as undoubtable,
APPENDIX 1 contains a reference list of western authors and
a
bibliography of their related works,
APPENDIX 2 contains a reference list of soviet institutions
with
contributing authors and the titles of their works.
APPENDIX 3 contains a reference list of soviet authors and a
bibliography of their related works.
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